The history of brewing stretches back thousands of years. Cuneiform tablets have been found in the territory of the ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia indicating that beer was available there as early as the third millennium B.C.E.
In ancient Egypt, brewing was widespread, and beer was a favorite beverage. Archaeological excavations there revealed the oldest written recipe for the brewing of beer. Babylonians too had beer.
Historians speculate that prehistoric nomads may have made beer from grain and water before learning to make bread.
The origin of the English word 'beer' is interesting. You have the English word 'bere', the Latin 'bibere' and the German 'bior'. All possible places of origin. Perhaps the word is much older than we think. The origin of the word 'ale' is just about as hard to pin down. One thing is for sure it has continued to be popular for a few thousand years.
It seems that all around the world people have been making beer for a very long time. Not just from Barley. Corn, and many other grains have been used.
During the Middle Ages in Europe, the brewing of beer moved to the monasteries. European monks improved the technology of the process, using hops as a preservative. Industrialization in the 19th century brought in the mechanization of brewing and proved to be a milestone in the history of this popular drink.
In the years to come man learned more about yeast and how it worked. This paved the way for better beer making techniques.
All this said making beer is still an art.